The secret to Belize’s ocean conservation: Belizeans
Recently, I listened to yet another lecture about the poor performance of many top-down development projects in post-earthquake Haiti. And it’s not just in Haiti that large, centrally planned projects have failed. The history of development aid is rife with examples. There are oil pipelines built to generate public wealth but shanghaied by corrupt leaders to purchase weapons; fish processing plants built in deserts inhabited by nomads with no history of eating fish; countless misguided dam projects that displace millions of people.
Why does foreign aid often fail?
Big international projects are often not connected to the skills, aspirations, and cultures of the people they aim to help. Rather than empower people to help themselves, they attempt, often unsuccessfully, to impose solutions from the outside.
Fortunately, development institutions are learning from these mistakes. In trying to help Belize improve their fisheries and – simultaneously – the conservation of the country’s incrediblebarrier reef and associated complex of nearshore habitats, EDF has tried to apply lessons learned from Big Development to take a much different approach.
Starting with the locals
EDF staff spent a long time listening to Belizean fishermen, government officials, and local NGOs to learn the lay of the land – how things worked there. We hired talented local staff. We identified strengths – including a strong ocean conservation ethic inculcated in young children, well-trained government staff, and highly competent NGOs that co-manage natural resources with the government – as well as weaknesses.
Dozens of meetings and workshops held over several years allowed Belizeans to articulate their needs and aspirations with respect to fisheries and the future of their coral reef.